Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings , or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are many different types of air pollutants, such as gases such as ammonia , carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxides , methane and chlorofluorocarbons , particulates both organic and inorganic , and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment for example, climate change , ozone depletion or habitat degradation or built environment for example, acid rain. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Air pollution is a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, and the individual's health status and genetics.
Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review
Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels - Properties and Exhaust Emissions: A Literature Review
Climate change is defined as the shift in climate patterns mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions from natural systems and human activities. So far, anthropogenic activities have caused about 1. In , the world encountered cases of natural disasters which are mainly related to the climate. Approximately Economic losses attributed to wildfires in alone are almost equal to the collective losses from wildfires incurred over the past decade, which is quite alarming. Furthermore, food, water, health, ecosystem, human habitat and infrastructure have been identified as the most vulnerable sectors under climate attack.
California Air Resources Board
In the coming years, the application of paraffinic biofuels, such as Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils HVO , in the transportation sector is expected to increase. However, as the composition of HVO is different compared to conventional diesel, the engine optimized for conventional fuel cannot take full advantage of the HVO beneficial properties. Suitable adjustment of a number of engine parameters, if not complete engine re-calibration, will enable the full exploitation of such fuels' potential for lower exhaust emissions and reduced fuel consumption. In addition, it was observed that the adjustment of MIT and EGR can enhance the exploitation of HVO potential for emissions reduction, highlighting the differences with the conventional diesel fuel. The increasing demand on fossil fuels, the rising price of crude oil and the necessity of reducing greenhouse gas emissions have led to a substantial effort to develop alternative energy sources.
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