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How to Write a Literature Review
The Engineering Literature Review – Five Quick Steps to Starting Research | Research Information
The Engineering Literature Review – Five Quick Steps to Starting Research
Metrics details. The potential impact of an influenza pandemic can be assessed by calculating a set of transmissibility parameters, the most important being the reproduction number R , which is defined as the average number of secondary cases generated per typical infectious case. We conducted a systematic review to summarize published estimates of R for pandemic or seasonal influenza and for novel influenza viruses e. We retained and summarized papers that estimated R for pandemic or seasonal influenza or for human infections with novel influenza viruses.
Climate change includes both global warming driven by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change , since the midth century humans have had an unprecedented impact on Earth's climate system and caused change on a global scale. Temperature rise on land is about twice the global average increase, leading to desert expansion and more common heat waves and wildfires. These impacts have led the World Health Organization to call climate change the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century.